Geologica Belgica

1374-8505 2034-1954

 

Impact factor: 0.762 (2015)

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Ojectif du journal :

Geologica Belgica est un journal belge qui accepte les articles relatifs à tous les aspects des sciences de la terre, avec un accent particulier sur la géologie régionale de la Belgique et de l’Afrique centrale. Les articles soumis doivent être concis et présenter des résultats non encore publiés. La revue encourage la publication d’articles de jeunes auteurs belges. De courtes notes sont acceptées. Les articles rédigés en anglais sont préférés mais les articles en français, néerlandais ou allemand sont également acceptés. Chaque article sera évalué par au moins deux relecteurs.

Périodicité :

Un volume annuel comprenant plusieurs fascicules (généralement de 2 à 4).

 

 

Scope of the journal:

Geologica Belgica is a Belgian journal that welcomes papers concerning all aspects of the earth sciences, with a particular emphasis on the regional geology of Belgium and central Africa. Submitted papers should be concise, presenting material not previously published. The journal encourages the publication of articles from Belgian junior authors. Short letters are accepted. Papers written in English are preferred, but papers in French, Dutch and German are also accepted. Each paper will be reviewed by at least two reviewers.

Periodicity:

One annual volume including fascicules (generaly from 2 to 4).

 

 

Scope of the journal:

Geologica Belgica is a Belgian journal that welcomes papers concerning all aspects of the earth sciences, with a particular emphasis on the regional geology of Belgium and central Africa. Submitted papers should be concise, presenting material not previously published. The journal encourages the publication of articles from Belgian junior authors. Short letters are accepted. Papers written in English are preferred, but papers in French, Dutch and German are also accepted. Each paper will be reviewed by at least two reviewers.

Periodicity:

One annual volume including fascicules (generaly from 2 to 4).

 

 

" ["instructionsauxauteurs"]=> string(38127) "

Guide to Authors

When submitting a manuscript the authors confirm that it is novel and not being introduced at other journals. The first author should be a member of Geologica Belgica (the society). While intellectual rights remain with the authors, copyright is transferred to Geologica Belgica.

Instructions to authors: for your manuscript, imitate scrupulously the following layout but do not try to reproduce the journal layout. Use the style "normal" throughout the whole paper. When submitting a paper in English, use either American or British English. Please note that an English abstract, English figure captions and English table and plate titles are required, also for papers that are not written in English.

Manuscripts must be addressed (by mail or e-mail) to the executive editor:

Dr Annick ANCEAU

University of Liege

Dep. ARGENCO / Gemme – GEO3

Quartier Polytech 1
Allee de la decouverte, 9 - Bat. B 52/3

B-4000 Liege 1

BELGIUM

a.anceau@ulg.ac.be


Title (low case and bold)

Jacques S. DUPONT1, Karl T. BRUG2 & Richard F. BRIDGE3

1Address #1.

2Address #2.

3Address #3.

Insert a running title (< ca. 70 characters, blank spaces included)

ABSTRACT. Not more than 200 words (± 15 lines). Do not repeat information contained in the title. The abstract, together with the title, must be self-contained as it is published separately from the paper in abstracting services such as Current Contents. Omit all references to the literature and to tables or figures, and omit obscure abbreviations and acronyms even though they may be defined in main body of the paper.

KEYWORDS: Not more than 8 words. Do not repeat words already present in the title.

Optional...

RESUME. Titre en français. Texte etc.

MOTS-CLES....

SAMENVATTING. Title in Dutch. Text....

SLEUTELWOORDEN....

ZUSAMMENFASSUNG. Title in German. Text...

SCHLÜSSELWÖRTER...

1. First order headings (in bold)

Do not imitate the layout of the journal, but the layout of these instructions only. Use the same font and the same STYLE (normal) throughout the manuscript. Align only flush left. Do not leave a free line to separate the paragraphs, but DO indent the first line of a new paragraph, except for the first paragraph of a section. The text should be double spaced and the size of the characters at least 12.

Numerical system is requested: 1., 1.1., 1.1.1., 1.1.2., 1.2., 1.3., etc. but do NOT use "numbering" or "bullets".

Footnotes are not accepted in the text. If notes are absolutely necessary, they should be grouped in a section before the references and numbered from (1) to (x) both in the text and in the section.

1.1. Second order headings (in bold and italics)

1.1.1. Third order headings (normal)

Besides the 3rd order headings, use:

a) ...

b) ...

c) ...

2. Cross references

In the text, cross references are as follows:

a) to reference list, citations are as follows: write "the results of Lebeau (1982) are questionable (Dupont, 1973a, 1973b; Dupont & Durand, 1975)"; if more than two authors (Dupont et al., 1978a); for comparison (see Servais, 1994; cf. Servais, 1993; e.g. Servais, 1990, fig. 3).

b) to other sections of the text, write "(see 2.3.1)", but not "(see p.8)".

c) to artworks write "as represented in Fig. 7, Table 2 and elsewhere (Fig. 1; Fig. 2B; Fig. 2A-B; Figs 2 & 3D; Table 4; Plate 1A)".

3. Measurements

Measurements are written: 1 to 9999 (no comma); from 10,000 (comma); 2.1 mm; 5 µm; 6.84 kg; 27%; 25,000 a BP (conventional 14C age); 17,000 a cal BP (calibrated 14C age); 60 ka (thousand years) for non 14C-ages; 5.2 Ma.

4. Compass points

The four basic nouns are written in full; they are capitalized only when designating the compass point: the North, the East, the South, the West (but: south Belgium, west Netherlands). Complex nouns are abbreviated and capitalized: NE, NW-SE, NNE-SSW, ... Adjectives are not capitalized: southern regions, ...

5. Stratigraphy

Adhere to the international rules for stratigraphic nomenclature. Capitalize a common noun or adjective that is part of a formal name: Matagne Shales, Diest Formation, Brabant Massif, Middle Ordovician, Lower Cretaceous, ... Informal designations are not capitalized: upper Paleozoic, late Cenomanian, ...

6. Palaeontology

Adhere to the international codes for botanical or zoological nomenclature. Systematic work is always introduced by the 1st order heading "Systematic Paleontology".

For taxonomic papers, the following layout is adopted:

- Sub-order...

- Superfamily: ...

- Family Loxochoncidae Sars, 1925

- Genus Touroconcha Ishizaki & Gunther, 1976; Touroconcha lapidiscola (Hartmann, 1959) (pl. 1, figs 1-6; pl. 2, fig. 3)

- Synonymies1959 Loxoconcha lapidiscola Hartmann: 223, pl. 41, figs 128-129, pl. 42, figs. 131-133.

1974 Loxoconcha ? lapidiscola Hartmann; Swain & Gilby: 324, fig. 24, pl. 5, fig. 9A-B.

pp. 1965 Loxoconcha lapidiscola Hartmann 1923; Swain: 32, fig. 1.

non 1965 Loxoconcha lapidiscola Hartmann 1923; Swain: 32, fig. 1.

? 1965 Loxoconcha lapidiscola Hartmann 1923; Swain: 32, fig. 1.

Genus Chelinospora Allen 1965

Chelinospora (Archaeozonotriletes) timanica(Naumova) comb. nov. (pl. 2, figs 8-9).

Basionyme: (Archaeozonotriletes) timanicus Naumova 1953: 81, pl. 12, fig. 4.

7. Powder X-ray diffraction data

Follow the procedure given in Acta Crystallographica A39, 174-186, Annexe III.

8. Submission

A pdf file including text and figures should be submitted by e-mail (a.anceau@ulg.ac.be).

Alternatively, three printed copies may be submitted to the editor together with the address of the corresponding author (fax, e-mail). Original artworks are not necessary for the submission of the manuscript.

The authors are requested to give the names and addresses of four possible unbiased reviewers, at least one of them being chosen outside Belgium.

9. Final version

9.1. Text

Send all files (text, artworks, tables) by mail or on a CD to the editor. Each artwork as a separate file.

The requested software is Word and .doc format. Use the TIMES 12 throughout the text including titles.

Use the same file for text, references and artwork captions; these should not be included in the text or merged with the figures, but put together at the end of the manuscript and presented as follows:

Figure 1.Caption

Table 1.Title ...

Plate 1.Title ...

9.2. Original artworks

Please note that Geologica Belgica being an open access journal, the final size of a paper in pdf format must permit easy dissemination by e-mail. Thus the number and size of figures and plates must be reasonable.

No original artwork should be larger than a page (17 x 22.5 cm) or a column (8 x 22.5 cm). No lettering should be smaller than 1 mm at journal format. Artworks are executed neatly in black China ink or equivalent quality (e.g. laser printer); do not use heavy plots; avoid grey-tones. Figures in colour are accepted. Please save space as much as possible.

Electronic figures should be in ai (Adobe Illustrator), and/or pdf format. All elements of a figure must be "grouped" before saving. No graphics in Excel format will be accepted. Please try to use the same format for all figures. Do not mention the figure number on the figure. Do not group the figures but provide one file for each figure and table.

9.2.3. Running title (top of each page)

In case the title of the paper is longer than 60 characters including space, the authors should provide an abbreviated title.

10. Proof

A proof will be provided, but author's corrections will not be accepted.

11. References

The journal names should be written in full. Follow scrupulously the examples below, and DO NOT leave a blank line between each reference:

Clemens, J.D., 1990. The granulite-granite connexion. In Vielzeuf, D. & Vidal, Ph. (eds), Granulites and crustal evolution. NATO ASI series. Series C, 311, Kluwer, Dordrecht, 25-36.

Dupont, M., 1991. Les crues de la Meuse. In Durand, J. (éd.), Traité d'hydrographie. VSP International, Amsterdam, 23-35.

Felder, W.M., Bosch P.W. & Bisschops J.H., 1989. Geologische kaart van Zuid-Limburg en omgeving, Afzettingen van de Maas. Rijks Geologische Dienst, Haarlem, Nederland.

Haesaerts, P., Juvigne, E., Kuyi, O., Mucher, H. & Roebroeks, W., 1981. Compte rendu de l'excursion du 13 juin 1981, en Hesbaye et au Limbourg néerlandais, consacrée à la stratigraphie des loess du Pléistocène supérieur. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique, 104, 223-240.

Zonneveld, J., 1957. River terraces and Quaternary Chronology in the Netherlands. Geologie en Mijnbouw, 19, 277-285.

12. Dates

The last line of the references should be:

Manuscript received XX.XX.20XX, accepted in revised form XX.XX.20XX, available on line XX.XX.20XX

Guide to Authors

When submitting a manuscript the authors confirm that it is novel and not being introduced at other journals. The first author should be a member of Geologica Belgica (the society). While intellectual rights remain with the authors, copyright is transferred to Geologica Belgica.

Instructions to authors: for your manuscript, imitate scrupulously the following layout but do not try to reproduce the journal layout. Use the style "normal" throughout the whole paper. When submitting a paper in English, use either American or British English. Please note that an English abstract, English figure captions and English table and plate titles are required, also for papers that are not written in English.

Manuscripts must be addressed (by mail or e-mail) to the executive editor:

Dr Annick ANCEAU

University of Liege

Dep. ARGENCO / Gemme – GEO3

Quartier Polytech 1
Allee de la decouverte, 9 - Bat. B 52/3

B-4000 Liege 1

BELGIUM

a.anceau@ulg.ac.be


Title (low case and bold)

Jacques S. DUPONT1, Karl T. BRUG2 & Richard F. BRIDGE3

1Address #1.

2Address #2.

3Address #3.

Insert a running title (< ca. 70 characters, blank spaces included)

ABSTRACT. Not more than 200 words (± 15 lines). Do not repeat information contained in the title. The abstract, together with the title, must be self-contained as it is published separately from the paper in abstracting services such as Current Contents. Omit all references to the literature and to tables or figures, and omit obscure abbreviations and acronyms even though they may be defined in main body of the paper.

KEYWORDS: Not more than 8 words. Do not repeat words already present in the title.

Optional...

RESUME. Titre en français. Texte etc.

MOTS-CLES....

SAMENVATTING. Title in Dutch. Text....

SLEUTELWOORDEN....

ZUSAMMENFASSUNG. Title in German. Text...

SCHLÜSSELWÖRTER...

1. First order headings (in bold)

Do not imitate the layout of the journal, but the layout of these instructions only. Use the same font and the same STYLE (normal) throughout the manuscript. Align only flush left. Do not leave a free line to separate the paragraphs, but DO indent the first line of a new paragraph, except for the first paragraph of a section. The text should be double spaced and the size of the characters at least 12.

Numerical system is requested: 1., 1.1., 1.1.1., 1.1.2., 1.2., 1.3., etc. but do NOT use "numbering" or "bullets".

Footnotes are not accepted in the text. If notes are absolutely necessary, they should be grouped in a section before the references and numbered from (1) to (x) both in the text and in the section.

1.1. Second order headings (in bold and italics)

1.1.1. Third order headings (normal)

Besides the 3rd order headings, use:

a) ...

b) ...

c) ...

2. Cross references

In the text, cross references are as follows:

a) to reference list, citations are as follows: write "the results of Lebeau (1982) are questionable (Dupont, 1973a, 1973b; Dupont & Durand, 1975)"; if more than two authors (Dupont et al., 1978a); for comparison (see Servais, 1994; cf. Servais, 1993; e.g. Servais, 1990, fig. 3).

b) to other sections of the text, write "(see 2.3.1)", but not "(see p.8)".

c) to artworks write "as represented in Fig. 7, Table 2 and elsewhere (Fig. 1; Fig. 2B; Fig. 2A-B; Figs 2 & 3D; Table 4; Plate 1A)".

3. Measurements

Measurements are written: 1 to 9999 (no comma); from 10,000 (comma); 2.1 mm; 5 µm; 6.84 kg; 27%; 25,000 a BP (conventional 14C age); 17,000 a cal BP (calibrated 14C age); 60 ka (thousand years) for non 14C-ages; 5.2 Ma.

4. Compass points

The four basic nouns are written in full; they are capitalized only when designating the compass point: the North, the East, the South, the West (but: south Belgium, west Netherlands). Complex nouns are abbreviated and capitalized: NE, NW-SE, NNE-SSW, ... Adjectives are not capitalized: southern regions, ...

5. Stratigraphy

Adhere to the international rules for stratigraphic nomenclature. Capitalize a common noun or adjective that is part of a formal name: Matagne Shales, Diest Formation, Brabant Massif, Middle Ordovician, Lower Cretaceous, ... Informal designations are not capitalized: upper Paleozoic, late Cenomanian, ...

6. Palaeontology

Adhere to the international codes for botanical or zoological nomenclature. Systematic work is always introduced by the 1st order heading "Systematic Paleontology".

For taxonomic papers, the following layout is adopted:

- Sub-order...

- Superfamily: ...

- Family Loxochoncidae Sars, 1925

- Genus Touroconcha Ishizaki & Gunther, 1976; Touroconcha lapidiscola (Hartmann, 1959) (pl. 1, figs 1-6; pl. 2, fig. 3)

- Synonymies1959 Loxoconcha lapidiscola Hartmann: 223, pl. 41, figs 128-129, pl. 42, figs. 131-133.

1974 Loxoconcha ? lapidiscola Hartmann; Swain & Gilby: 324, fig. 24, pl. 5, fig. 9A-B.

pp. 1965 Loxoconcha lapidiscola Hartmann 1923; Swain: 32, fig. 1.

non 1965 Loxoconcha lapidiscola Hartmann 1923; Swain: 32, fig. 1.

? 1965 Loxoconcha lapidiscola Hartmann 1923; Swain: 32, fig. 1.

Genus Chelinospora Allen 1965

Chelinospora (Archaeozonotriletes) timanica(Naumova) comb. nov. (pl. 2, figs 8-9).

Basionyme: (Archaeozonotriletes) timanicus Naumova 1953: 81, pl. 12, fig. 4.

7. Powder X-ray diffraction data

Follow the procedure given in Acta Crystallographica A39, 174-186, Annexe III.

8. Submission

A pdf file including text and figures should be submitted by e-mail (a.anceau@ulg.ac.be).

Alternatively, three printed copies may be submitted to the editor together with the address of the corresponding author (fax, e-mail). Original artworks are not necessary for the submission of the manuscript.

The authors are requested to give the names and addresses of four possible unbiased reviewers, at least one of them being chosen outside Belgium.

9. Final version

9.1. Text

Send all files (text, artworks, tables) by mail or on a CD to the editor. Each artwork as a separate file.

The requested software is Word and .doc format. Use the TIMES 12 throughout the text including titles.

Use the same file for text, references and artwork captions; these should not be included in the text or merged with the figures, but put together at the end of the manuscript and presented as follows:

Figure 1.Caption

Table 1.Title ...

Plate 1.Title ...

9.2. Original artworks

Please note that Geologica Belgica being an open access journal, the final size of a paper in pdf format must permit easy dissemination by e-mail. Thus the number and size of figures and plates must be reasonable.

No original artwork should be larger than a page (17 x 22.5 cm) or a column (8 x 22.5 cm). No lettering should be smaller than 1 mm at journal format. Artworks are executed neatly in black China ink or equivalent quality (e.g. laser printer); do not use heavy plots; avoid grey-tones. Figures in colour are accepted. Please save space as much as possible.

Electronic figures should be in ai (Adobe Illustrator), and/or pdf format. All elements of a figure must be "grouped" before saving. No graphics in Excel format will be accepted. Please try to use the same format for all figures. Do not mention the figure number on the figure. Do not group the figures but provide one file for each figure and table.

9.2.3. Running title (top of each page)

In case the title of the paper is longer than 60 characters including space, the authors should provide an abbreviated title.

10. Proof

A proof will be provided, but author's corrections will not be accepted.

11. References

The journal names should be written in full. Follow scrupulously the examples below, and DO NOT leave a blank line between each reference:

Clemens, J.D., 1990. The granulite-granite connexion. In Vielzeuf, D. & Vidal, Ph. (eds), Granulites and crustal evolution. NATO ASI series. Series C, 311, Kluwer, Dordrecht, 25-36.

Dupont, M., 1991. Les crues de la Meuse. In Durand, J. (éd.), Traité d'hydrographie. VSP International, Amsterdam, 23-35.

Felder, W.M., Bosch P.W. & Bisschops J.H., 1989. Geologische kaart van Zuid-Limburg en omgeving, Afzettingen van de Maas. Rijks Geologische Dienst, Haarlem, Nederland.

Haesaerts, P., Juvigne, E., Kuyi, O., Mucher, H. & Roebroeks, W., 1981. Compte rendu de l'excursion du 13 juin 1981, en Hesbaye et au Limbourg néerlandais, consacrée à la stratigraphie des loess du Pléistocène supérieur. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique, 104, 223-240.

Zonneveld, J., 1957. River terraces and Quaternary Chronology in the Netherlands. Geologie en Mijnbouw, 19, 277-285.

12. Dates

The last line of the references should be:

Manuscript received XX.XX.20XX, accepted in revised form XX.XX.20XX, available on line XX.XX.20XX

Guide to Authors

When submitting a manuscript the authors confirm that it is novel and not being introduced at other journals. The first author should be a member of Geologica Belgica (the society). While intellectual rights remain with the authors, copyright is transferred to Geologica Belgica.

Instructions to authors: for your manuscript, imitate scrupulously the following layout but do not try to reproduce the journal layout. Use the style "normal" throughout the whole paper. When submitting a paper in English, use either American or British English. Please note that an English abstract, English figure captions and English table and plate titles are required, also for papers that are not written in English.

Manuscripts must be addressed (by mail or e-mail) to the executive editor:

Dr Annick ANCEAU

University of Liege

Dep. ARGENCO / Gemme – GEO3

Quartier Polytech 1
Allee de la decouverte, 9 - Bat. B 52/3

B-4000 Liege 1

BELGIUM

a.anceau@ulg.ac.be


Title (low case and bold)

Jacques S. DUPONT1, Karl T. BRUG2 & Richard F. BRIDGE3

1Address #1.

2Address #2.

3Address #3.

Insert a running title (< ca. 70 characters, blank spaces included)

ABSTRACT. Not more than 200 words (± 15 lines). Do not repeat information contained in the title. The abstract, together with the title, must be self-contained as it is published separately from the paper in abstracting services such as Current Contents. Omit all references to the literature and to tables or figures, and omit obscure abbreviations and acronyms even though they may be defined in main body of the paper.

KEYWORDS: Not more than 8 words. Do not repeat words already present in the title.

Optional...

RESUME. Titre en français. Texte etc.

MOTS-CLES....

SAMENVATTING. Title in Dutch. Text....

SLEUTELWOORDEN....

ZUSAMMENFASSUNG. Title in German. Text...

SCHLÜSSELWÖRTER...

1. First order headings (in bold)

Do not imitate the layout of the journal, but the layout of these instructions only. Use the same font and the same STYLE (normal) throughout the manuscript. Align only flush left. Do not leave a free line to separate the paragraphs, but DO indent the first line of a new paragraph, except for the first paragraph of a section. The text should be double spaced and the size of the characters at least 12.

Numerical system is requested: 1., 1.1., 1.1.1., 1.1.2., 1.2., 1.3., etc. but do NOT use "numbering" or "bullets".

Footnotes are not accepted in the text. If notes are absolutely necessary, they should be grouped in a section before the references and numbered from (1) to (x) both in the text and in the section.

1.1. Second order headings (in bold and italics)

1.1.1. Third order headings (normal)

Besides the 3rd order headings, use:

a) ...

b) ...

c) ...

2. Cross references

In the text, cross references are as follows:

a) to reference list, citations are as follows: write "the results of Lebeau (1982) are questionable (Dupont, 1973a, 1973b; Dupont & Durand, 1975)"; if more than two authors (Dupont et al., 1978a); for comparison (see Servais, 1994; cf. Servais, 1993; e.g. Servais, 1990, fig. 3).

b) to other sections of the text, write "(see 2.3.1)", but not "(see p.8)".

c) to artworks write "as represented in Fig. 7, Table 2 and elsewhere (Fig. 1; Fig. 2B; Fig. 2A-B; Figs 2 & 3D; Table 4; Plate 1A)".

3. Measurements

Measurements are written: 1 to 9999 (no comma); from 10,000 (comma); 2.1 mm; 5 µm; 6.84 kg; 27%; 25,000 a BP (conventional 14C age); 17,000 a cal BP (calibrated 14C age); 60 ka (thousand years) for non 14C-ages; 5.2 Ma.

4. Compass points

The four basic nouns are written in full; they are capitalized only when designating the compass point: the North, the East, the South, the West (but: south Belgium, west Netherlands). Complex nouns are abbreviated and capitalized: NE, NW-SE, NNE-SSW, ... Adjectives are not capitalized: southern regions, ...

5. Stratigraphy

Adhere to the international rules for stratigraphic nomenclature. Capitalize a common noun or adjective that is part of a formal name: Matagne Shales, Diest Formation, Brabant Massif, Middle Ordovician, Lower Cretaceous, ... Informal designations are not capitalized: upper Paleozoic, late Cenomanian, ...

6. Palaeontology

Adhere to the international codes for botanical or zoological nomenclature. Systematic work is always introduced by the 1st order heading "Systematic Paleontology".

For taxonomic papers, the following layout is adopted:

- Sub-order...

- Superfamily: ...

- Family Loxochoncidae Sars, 1925

- Genus Touroconcha Ishizaki & Gunther, 1976; Touroconcha lapidiscola (Hartmann, 1959) (pl. 1, figs 1-6; pl. 2, fig. 3)

- Synonymies1959 Loxoconcha lapidiscola Hartmann: 223, pl. 41, figs 128-129, pl. 42, figs. 131-133.

1974 Loxoconcha ? lapidiscola Hartmann; Swain & Gilby: 324, fig. 24, pl. 5, fig. 9A-B.

pp. 1965 Loxoconcha lapidiscola Hartmann 1923; Swain: 32, fig. 1.

non 1965 Loxoconcha lapidiscola Hartmann 1923; Swain: 32, fig. 1.

? 1965 Loxoconcha lapidiscola Hartmann 1923; Swain: 32, fig. 1.

Genus Chelinospora Allen 1965

Chelinospora (Archaeozonotriletes) timanica(Naumova) comb. nov. (pl. 2, figs 8-9).

Basionyme: (Archaeozonotriletes) timanicus Naumova 1953: 81, pl. 12, fig. 4.

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Clemens, J.D., 1990. The granulite-granite connexion. In Vielzeuf, D. & Vidal, Ph. (eds), Granulites and crustal evolution. NATO ASI series. Series C, 311, Kluwer, Dordrecht, 25-36.

Dupont, M., 1991. Les crues de la Meuse. In Durand, J. (éd.), Traité d'hydrographie. VSP International, Amsterdam, 23-35.

Felder, W.M., Bosch P.W. & Bisschops J.H., 1989. Geologische kaart van Zuid-Limburg en omgeving, Afzettingen van de Maas. Rijks Geologische Dienst, Haarlem, Nederland.

Haesaerts, P., Juvigne, E., Kuyi, O., Mucher, H. & Roebroeks, W., 1981. Compte rendu de l'excursion du 13 juin 1981, en Hesbaye et au Limbourg néerlandais, consacrée à la stratigraphie des loess du Pléistocène supérieur. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique, 104, 223-240.

Zonneveld, J., 1957. River terraces and Quaternary Chronology in the Netherlands. Geologie en Mijnbouw, 19, 277-285.

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Des radiations adaptatives aux crises biologiques des vertébrés paléozoïques : une approche géobiologique. Les plus anciens vertébrés sont des formes céphalisées non ossifiées (crâniates) du Cambrien inférieur de Chine. Les plus anciennes formes ossifiées (euvertébrés) datent de l’Ordovicien. C’est après la « lacune de Talimaa » que les vertébrés effectuent une première radiation adaptative au Silurien où dominent les formes agnathes (les ‘ostracodermes’), puis une seconde au Dévonien où dominent les formes à mâchoires (les gnathostomes), en particulier les placodermes (poissons cuirassés). Les tétrapodes apparaissent au Dévonien moyen au sein des sarcoptérygiens (poissons osseux à nageoires charnues) ; ils sont aquatiques jusqu’au Carbonifère. Les vertébrés ne sont pas apparus en milieu dulcicole mais en milieu marin. De même, les tétrapodes sont probablement apparus dans des environnements marins très peu profonds. Les vertébrés siluriens ont occupé tous les milieux possibles des plates-formes épicontinentales marines. C’est avec le développement des lithofaciès tardi- ou post-tectoniques du type des Vieux Grès Rouges (VGR) que se mettent en place des assemblages de vertébrés caractéristiques de milieux agités (‘ostracodermes’ et placodermes en particulier). On connaît ainsi au Dévonien des assemblages très riches de vertébrés tant dans les milieux marginomarins, intermédiaires et continentaux des VGR que sur les plates-formes marines (faciès carbonatés et siliciclastiques). Les vertébrés subissent les deux crises biologiques de la fin du Dévonien : disparition des ‘ostracodermes’ à la crise Frasnien-Famennien, et disparition des placodermes à la limite Dévonien-Carbonifère, avec un relais écologique majeur au début du Carbonifère quand les chondrichtyens (poissons cartilagineux) et les ostéichtyens (poissons osseux, principalement les actinoptérygiens) deviennent dominants. C’est après la « lacune de Romer » du Carbonifère inférieur que se développeront les tétrapodes terrestres (amphibiens et reptiles). La « lacune d’Olson » du Permien moyen est caractérisée par un déclin drastique des tétrapodes basaux (amphibiens) suivi d’une radiation des reptiles. L’extinction de la fin du Permien ne semble pas avoir beaucoup affecté les vertébrés, à l’exception des tétrapodes. Au point de vue de la géobiologie, au moins deux des événements qui caractérisent le déploiement des vertébrés au cours du Paléozoïque peuvent être mis en relation avec un épisode d’augmentation du taux d’oxygène dans les mers du globe ; il s’agit de la mise en place des euvertébrés au cours de la Grande Biodiversification de l’Ordovicien (GOBE en anglais) et de la radiation des grands gnathostomes (en particulier les placodermes) au cours de la radiation adaptative du Dévonien et de la Révolution de Prédation des vertébrés. Cependant, coïncidence ne signifiant pas relation causale, il convient d’être prudent avec les scénarios invoqués dans la presse scientifique de ces dernières années.

The oldest vertebrates are Early Cambrian, cephalized unossified species (craniates) from China. The oldest armoured species (euvertebrates) are Ordovician in age. After Talimaa’s Gap, vertebrates have their first adaptive radiation during the Silurian when jawless species (‘ostracoderms’) are dominant; they have their second radiation during the Devonian when jawed species (gnathostomes), and particularly the placoderms (armoured fishes), are dominant. Tetrapods appear in the Middle Devonian among sarcopterygians (bony fishes with lobed fins); they were probably aquatic during all the Devonian period. Vertebrates did not appear in freshwater but in marine environments. Similarly, tetrapods most probably appeared in very shallow marine environments. Silurian vertebrates did occupy all the environments of the marine epicontinental platforms. Vertebrate assemblages of high energy environments (‘ostracoderms’ and placoderms in particular), took place with the development of late- and post-tectonic Old Red Sandstone facies (ORS). So, Devonian vertebrate assemblages are known from both marginal marine, intermediate and continental environments of the ORS, and from the marine platforms (carbonate and siliciclastic facies). Vertebrates did encounter the two end-Devonian biological crises: disappearance of ‘ostracoderms’ at the Frasnian-Famennian crisis, and disappearance of placoderms at the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary, with a major ecological turnover at the beginning of the Carboniferous when chondrichthyans (cartilaginous fishes) and osteichthyans (bony fishes, mainly actinopterygians) became dominant. Terrestrial tetrapods (both amphibians and reptiles) occured only after the earliest Carboniferous Romer’s Gap. Vertebrates suffered at the Mid-Permian Olson’s Gap with a drastic decline of basal tetrapods (amphibians) followed by a radiation of reptiles. The end-Permian extinction does not seem to have been strong for vertebrates, except for tetrapods. On a geobiological point of view, at least two of the bioevents which are characteristic for the rise of Palaeozoic vertebrates may be related with an increase in the global marine oxygen rate, viz., appearance of euvertebrates during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE), and the radiation of large gnathostomes (in particular placoderms) during the Devonian adaptive radiation and Predation Revolution of vertebrates. However, coincidence does not mean causal relationship. So, we must be cautious with scenarios that appeared in the scientific literature in the most recent years.

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Des radiations adaptatives aux crises biologiques des vertébrés paléozoïques : une approche géobiologique. Les plus anciens vertébrés sont des formes céphalisées non ossifiées (crâniates) du Cambrien inférieur de Chine. Les plus anciennes formes ossifiées (euvertébrés) datent de l’Ordovicien. C’est après la « lacune de Talimaa » que les vertébrés effectuent une première radiation adaptative au Silurien où dominent les formes agnathes (les ‘ostracodermes’), puis une seconde au Dévonien où dominent les formes à mâchoires (les gnathostomes), en particulier les placodermes (poissons cuirassés). Les tétrapodes apparaissent au Dévonien moyen au sein des sarcoptérygiens (poissons osseux à nageoires charnues) ; ils sont aquatiques jusqu’au Carbonifère. Les vertébrés ne sont pas apparus en milieu dulcicole mais en milieu marin. De même, les tétrapodes sont probablement apparus dans des environnements marins très peu profonds. Les vertébrés siluriens ont occupé tous les milieux possibles des plates-formes épicontinentales marines. C’est avec le développement des lithofaciès tardi- ou post-tectoniques du type des Vieux Grès Rouges (VGR) que se mettent en place des assemblages de vertébrés caractéristiques de milieux agités (‘ostracodermes’ et placodermes en particulier). On connaît ainsi au Dévonien des assemblages très riches de vertébrés tant dans les milieux marginomarins, intermédiaires et continentaux des VGR que sur les plates-formes marines (faciès carbonatés et siliciclastiques). Les vertébrés subissent les deux crises biologiques de la fin du Dévonien : disparition des ‘ostracodermes’ à la crise Frasnien-Famennien, et disparition des placodermes à la limite Dévonien-Carbonifère, avec un relais écologique majeur au début du Carbonifère quand les chondrichtyens (poissons cartilagineux) et les ostéichtyens (poissons osseux, principalement les actinoptérygiens) deviennent dominants. C’est après la « lacune de Romer » du Carbonifère inférieur que se développeront les tétrapodes terrestres (amphibiens et reptiles). La « lacune d’Olson » du Permien moyen est caractérisée par un déclin drastique des tétrapodes basaux (amphibiens) suivi d’une radiation des reptiles. L’extinction de la fin du Permien ne semble pas avoir beaucoup affecté les vertébrés, à l’exception des tétrapodes. Au point de vue de la géobiologie, au moins deux des événements qui caractérisent le déploiement des vertébrés au cours du Paléozoïque peuvent être mis en relation avec un épisode d’augmentation du taux d’oxygène dans les mers du globe ; il s’agit de la mise en place des euvertébrés au cours de la Grande Biodiversification de l’Ordovicien (GOBE en anglais) et de la radiation des grands gnathostomes (en particulier les placodermes) au cours de la radiation adaptative du Dévonien et de la Révolution de Prédation des vertébrés. Cependant, coïncidence ne signifiant pas relation causale, il convient d’être prudent avec les scénarios invoqués dans la presse scientifique de ces dernières années.

The oldest vertebrates are Early Cambrian, cephalized unossified species (craniates) from China. The oldest armoured species (euvertebrates) are Ordovician in age. After Talimaa’s Gap, vertebrates have their first adaptive radiation during the Silurian when jawless species (‘ostracoderms’) are dominant; they have their second radiation during the Devonian when jawed species (gnathostomes), and particularly the placoderms (armoured fishes), are dominant. Tetrapods appear in the Middle Devonian among sarcopterygians (bony fishes with lobed fins); they were probably aquatic during all the Devonian period. Vertebrates did not appear in freshwater but in marine environments. Similarly, tetrapods most probably appeared in very shallow marine environments. Silurian vertebrates did occupy all the environments of the marine epicontinental platforms. Vertebrate assemblages of high energy environments (‘ostracoderms’ and placoderms in particular), took place with the development of late- and post-tectonic Old Red Sandstone facies (ORS). So, Devonian vertebrate assemblages are known from both marginal marine, intermediate and continental environments of the ORS, and from the marine platforms (carbonate and siliciclastic facies). Vertebrates did encounter the two end-Devonian biological crises: disappearance of ‘ostracoderms’ at the Frasnian-Famennian crisis, and disappearance of placoderms at the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary, with a major ecological turnover at the beginning of the Carboniferous when chondrichthyans (cartilaginous fishes) and osteichthyans (bony fishes, mainly actinopterygians) became dominant. Terrestrial tetrapods (both amphibians and reptiles) occured only after the earliest Carboniferous Romer’s Gap. Vertebrates suffered at the Mid-Permian Olson’s Gap with a drastic decline of basal tetrapods (amphibians) followed by a radiation of reptiles. The end-Permian extinction does not seem to have been strong for vertebrates, except for tetrapods. On a geobiological point of view, at least two of the bioevents which are characteristic for the rise of Palaeozoic vertebrates may be related with an increase in the global marine oxygen rate, viz., appearance of euvertebrates during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE), and the radiation of large gnathostomes (in particular placoderms) during the Devonian adaptive radiation and Predation Revolution of vertebrates. However, coincidence does not mean causal relationship. So, we must be cautious with scenarios that appeared in the scientific literature in the most recent years.

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Alain BLIECK

The André Dumont medallist lecture: From adaptive radiations to biotic crises in Palaeozoic vertebrates: a geobiological approach

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Annexes

Résumé

Des radiations adaptatives aux crises biologiques des vertébrés paléozoïques : une approche géobiologique. Les plus anciens vertébrés sont des formes céphalisées non ossifiées (crâniates) du Cambrien inférieur de Chine. Les plus anciennes formes ossifiées (euvertébrés) datent de l’Ordovicien. C’est après la « lacune de Talimaa » que les vertébrés effectuent une première radiation adaptative au Silurien où dominent les formes agnathes (les ‘ostracodermes’), puis une seconde au Dévonien où dominent les formes à mâchoires (les gnathostomes), en particulier les placodermes (poissons cuirassés). Les tétrapodes apparaissent au Dévonien moyen au sein des sarcoptérygiens (poissons osseux à nageoires charnues) ; ils sont aquatiques jusqu’au Carbonifère. Les vertébrés ne sont pas apparus en milieu dulcicole mais en milieu marin. De même, les tétrapodes sont probablement apparus dans des environnements marins très peu profonds. Les vertébrés siluriens ont occupé tous les milieux possibles des plates-formes épicontinentales marines. C’est avec le développement des lithofaciès tardi- ou post-tectoniques du type des Vieux Grès Rouges (VGR) que se mettent en place des assemblages de vertébrés caractéristiques de milieux agités (‘ostracodermes’ et placodermes en particulier). On connaît ainsi au Dévonien des assemblages très riches de vertébrés tant dans les milieux marginomarins, intermédiaires et continentaux des VGR que sur les plates-formes marines (faciès carbonatés et siliciclastiques). Les vertébrés subissent les deux crises biologiques de la fin du Dévonien : disparition des ‘ostracodermes’ à la crise Frasnien-Famennien, et disparition des placodermes à la limite Dévonien-Carbonifère, avec un relais écologique majeur au début du Carbonifère quand les chondrichtyens (poissons cartilagineux) et les ostéichtyens (poissons osseux, principalement les actinoptérygiens) deviennent dominants. C’est après la « lacune de Romer » du Carbonifère inférieur que se développeront les tétrapodes terrestres (amphibiens et reptiles). La « lacune d’Olson » du Permien moyen est caractérisée par un déclin drastique des tétrapodes basaux (amphibiens) suivi d’une radiation des reptiles. L’extinction de la fin du Permien ne semble pas avoir beaucoup affecté les vertébrés, à l’exception des tétrapodes. Au point de vue de la géobiologie, au moins deux des événements qui caractérisent le déploiement des vertébrés au cours du Paléozoïque peuvent être mis en relation avec un épisode d’augmentation du taux d’oxygène dans les mers du globe ; il s’agit de la mise en place des euvertébrés au cours de la Grande Biodiversification de l’Ordovicien (GOBE en anglais) et de la radiation des grands gnathostomes (en particulier les placodermes) au cours de la radiation adaptative du Dévonien et de la Révolution de Prédation des vertébrés. Cependant, coïncidence ne signifiant pas relation causale, il convient d’être prudent avec les scénarios invoqués dans la presse scientifique de ces dernières années.

Mots-clés : palaeoenvironments, Agnathes, biodiversité, écosystèmes, extinctions en masse, gnathostomes, macroévolution, paléoenvironnements, relais écologique, Révolution Amniotique, Révolution de Prédation, Révolution du Necton, tétrapodes, Vieux Grès Rouges., Agnathans, Amniotic Revolution, biodiversity, ecological turnover, ecosystems, macroevolution, Nekton Revolution, mass extinctions, Old Red Sandstones, Predation Revolution, tetrapods.

Abstract

The oldest vertebrates are Early Cambrian, cephalized unossified species (craniates) from China. The oldest armoured species (euvertebrates) are Ordovician in age. After Talimaa’s Gap, vertebrates have their first adaptive radiation during the Silurian when jawless species (‘ostracoderms’) are dominant; they have their second radiation during the Devonian when jawed species (gnathostomes), and particularly the placoderms (armoured fishes), are dominant. Tetrapods appear in the Middle Devonian among sarcopterygians (bony fishes with lobed fins); they were probably aquatic during all the Devonian period. Vertebrates did not appear in freshwater but in marine environments. Similarly, tetrapods most probably appeared in very shallow marine environments. Silurian vertebrates did occupy all the environments of the marine epicontinental platforms. Vertebrate assemblages of high energy environments (‘ostracoderms’ and placoderms in particular), took place with the development of late- and post-tectonic Old Red Sandstone facies (ORS). So, Devonian vertebrate assemblages are known from both marginal marine, intermediate and continental environments of the ORS, and from the marine platforms (carbonate and siliciclastic facies). Vertebrates did encounter the two end-Devonian biological crises: disappearance of ‘ostracoderms’ at the Frasnian-Famennian crisis, and disappearance of placoderms at the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary, with a major ecological turnover at the beginning of the Carboniferous when chondrichthyans (cartilaginous fishes) and osteichthyans (bony fishes, mainly actinopterygians) became dominant. Terrestrial tetrapods (both amphibians and reptiles) occured only after the earliest Carboniferous Romer’s Gap. Vertebrates suffered at the Mid-Permian Olson’s Gap with a drastic decline of basal tetrapods (amphibians) followed by a radiation of reptiles. The end-Permian extinction does not seem to have been strong for vertebrates, except for tetrapods. On a geobiological point of view, at least two of the bioevents which are characteristic for the rise of Palaeozoic vertebrates may be related with an increase in the global marine oxygen rate, viz., appearance of euvertebrates during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE), and the radiation of large gnathostomes (in particular placoderms) during the Devonian adaptive radiation and Predation Revolution of vertebrates. However, coincidence does not mean causal relationship. So, we must be cautious with scenarios that appeared in the scientific literature in the most recent years.

To cite this article

Alain BLIECK, «The André Dumont medallist lecture: From adaptive radiations to biotic crises in Palaeozoic vertebrates: a geobiological approach», Geologica Belgica [En ligne], volume 14 (2011), number 3-4, 203-227 URL : http://popups.ulg.ac.be/1374-8505/index.php?id=3372.

About: Alain BLIECK

Université Lille 1 – Sciences et Technologies, UFR Sciences de la Terre, FRE 3298 du CNRS « Géosystèmes », F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq cedex, France