Acta Stereologica



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Karsten Nielsen & Finn Lundbeck

Stereological analysis by use of Cavalieri’s principle of late change in mouse bladders after irradiation and chemotherapy

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Stereological analysis by use of Cavalieri’s principle of total volume estimation has been performed to investigate the late changes in mouse bladders one year after irradiation alone (10-25 Gy) or irradiation (10-15 Gy) combined with cyclophosphamide (CTX) 100 mg/kg, or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (cis-DDP), 6 mg/kg. A significant increase in total volume of urothelium was found in the group treated with CTX combined with irradiation. The total volume of connective tissue in the muscular layer in the groups which received irradiation only showed a significant increase. This indicates that irradiation induces development of late damage with connective tissue formation. There also seemed to be an increase in the total amount of connective tissue in muscular tissue, although not statistically significant, in the groups treated with CTX and irradiation compared with CTX alone. This may indicate that CTX prevent the irradiation-induced proliferation of connective tissue. The group treated with CTX and radiation had a significant decrease in the total volume of lamina propria but no difference was found in the other treatment groups when comparing connective tissue, muscular layer or amount of vessels and capillaries with their corresponding control groups. Results from bladders treated with cis-DDP alone or combined with radiation were statistically inconclusive due to the small number of animals in each group. Stereological analysis using Cavalieri’s principle of total volume estimation is a feasible method to demonstrate and quantitate treatment-induced late bladder tissue changes.

Keywords : bladder irradiation, Cavalieri’s principle, chemotherapy, stereological analysis, volume estimation

To cite this article

Karsten Nielsen & Finn Lundbeck, «Stereological analysis by use of Cavalieri’s principle of late change in mouse bladders after irradiation and chemotherapy», Acta Stereologica [En ligne], Volume 13 (1994), Number 1 - Proceedings of the sixth European congress for stereology - Part two - May 1994, 89-93 URL :

About: Karsten Nielsen

Institute of Pathology, Aalborg Hospital, DK-9000 Aalborg, Denmark

About: Finn Lundbeck

Danish Cancer Society, Department of Experimental Clinical Oncology, Department of Urology, Skejby Hospital, University of Aarhus, Denmark