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Stratiform and vein-type deposits in the Pan-African Orogen in Central and Southern Africa: evidence for multiphase mineralisation
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Stratiform deposits in the Pan-African Orogen are of the Cu-Co type and are restricted to carbonates and siliciclastic sediments that are stratigraphically close above the basement. The stratiform Cu-Co deposits formed during early diagenesis (possibly around 820 Ma) and during late diagenesis/metamorphism and the Pan-African Orogeny (~580 to ~520 Ma). The early diagenetic Cu-Co sulphides were partly remobilised into the second stratabound Cu-Co mineralisation, with precipitation of Cu-Co sulphides in nodules, veins and as breccia cements.
Vein-type Cu-Pb-Zn mineralisation occurs at two distinct levels, higher in the stratigraphy. The lower level vein-type deposits occur in dolomite and are dominantly of the Zn-Cu type. The higher level vein-type deposits occur at the contact between dolomite and sandstone and are dominated by massive Cu. The Cu-dominated deposits that have been dated, developed during the waning stage of the Pan-African Orogeny (~530 to ~500 Ma). The Zn-dominated deposits for which a mineralisation age has been established, formed after the Pan-African Orogeny. Some of these vein-type mineralisation have been remobilised after their formation, with the precipitation of massive Cu(-Ag) sulphides.
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About: Philippe MUCHEZ
Geodynamics and Geofluids Research Group, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, K.U.Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200E, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium
About: Maarten HAEST
Centre of Excellence for 3D Mineral Mapping, Earth Science and Resource Engineering, CSIRO, Dick Perry Avenue 26, 6102 Kensington, WA, Australia