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Scope of the journal :

The Journal Federalism-Regionalism investigates the political dynamics and the structures of complex political units: regional or federal states as well as international or supranational organisations. The intrusion of globalisation effects into political life, from the global to the local levels, are well illustrated by multi-level governance phenomena. Issues such as the distribution of decision-making powers and competences as well as the interactions between different levels and the related social processes are part of the fundamental questions raised by the journal Federalism-Regionalism.

Federalism-Regionalism was founded by the Centre for the Study of Federalism in 1989, at a turning point for Belgian federalism, the European Union and the new international order. It was revived in 1999 by Prof. Jean Beaufays (University of Liège). Since then, it has released on-line special issues, articles and reviews of scientific research. It is addressed to political scientists, sociologists, law students as well as political and social actors.

Edited on the University of Liège scientific periodic publication portal, Federalism-Regionalism is part of the Open Access journals networks. It does not charge APCs or submission charges. The Journal allow the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions. They also retain publishing rights but the prior publication in Federalism-Regionalism must be clearly mentionned and the URL of the article provided.

The authors should submit articles to the following electronic address: federalisme-regionalisme@misc.ulg.ac.be. The Journal issues articles in French, Dutch and English. Instructions for authors are available below and may also be obtained by contacting the Assistant Editor.

Frequency of issue :

Yearly.

Editorial Board - Correspondence :

- Editor-in-Chief : Pierre Verjans, pverjans@ulg.ac.be
- Assistant Editor : Geoffroy Matagne, gmatagne@ulg.ac.be

- Editorial Board :

Jean Beaufays, Université de Liège, Belgique
Kris Deschouwer, Vrij Universiteit Brussel, Belgique
Carl Devos, Universiteit Gent, Belgique
Elodie Fabre, Queen's University Belfast, Royaume-Uni
Eric Geerkens, Université de Liège, Belgique
André Lecours, Université d'Ottawa, Canada
Bart Maddens, KU Leuven, Belgique
Geoffroy Matagne, Université de Liège, Belgique
Petra Meier, Universiteit Antwerpen, Belgique
Sean Muller, Université de Berne, Suisse
Yves Palau, Paris XII, France
Johanne Poirier, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgique
Min Reuchamps, Université catholique de Louvain, Belgique

Pierre Verjans, Université de Liège, Belgique

- Editorial Advisory Board :

Gonzales d'Alcantara, Université d'Anvers, Belgique
Jean Beaufays, Université de Liège, Belgique
Marc Bossuyt, Universiteit Antwerpen, Belgique
Jo Buelens, Vrij Universiteit Brussel - Erasmushogeschool Brussel, Belgique
Kris Deschouwer, Vrij Universiteit Brussel, Belgique
Frank Delmartino, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgique
Carl Devos, Universiteit Gent, Belgique
Elodie Fabre, Queen's University Belfast, Royaume-Uni
Eric Geerkens, Université de Liège, Belgique
Michel Hermans, HEC-Université de Liège, Belgique
Marc Jacquemain, Université de Liège, Belgique
Bob Kabamba, Université de Liège, Belgique
Michael Keating, European University Institute, Italie
André Lecours, Université d'Ottawa, Canada
Bart Maddens, KU Leuven, Belgique
Marco Martiniello, FNRS-Université de Liège, Belgique
Geoffroy Matagne, Université de Liège, Belgique
Petra Meier, Universiteit Antwerpen, Belgique
Sean Muller, Université de Berne, Suisse
Yves Palau, Paris XII, France
Olivier Paye, Facultés universitaires Saint-Louis, Belgique
Min Reuchamps, Université catholique de Louvain, Belgique

François Saint-Ouen, FEDRE, Suisse
Daniel Seiler, Institut d'études politiques d'Aix-en-Provence, France
Antony Todorov, Nouvelle université bulgare-Université de Sofia, Bulgarie
Pierre Vercauteren, Facultés Universitaires Catholiques de Mons, Belgique
Pierre Verjans, Université de Liège, Belgique

Fédéralisme-Régionalisme
Université de Liège
Boulevard du Rectorat, 7 – B.31
B – 4000 Liège
Belgium
federalisme-regionalisme@misc.ulg.ac.be

 

Instructions for Authors

Articles can be written in French, Dutch, or English.

The length must be between 6000-8000 words, including abstract, footnotes, etc. The abstract should contain about 150 words. The introduction should include a presentation of the topic and methodology used. Authors must provide five keywords.

Authors should mention, after their article title, the following information: complete name, academic titles and institutional affiliations, postal and electronic address.

For references, authors should use the Oxford system (or French). Sources should be mentioned in footnotes and the bottom of each page.

For books: Grawitz (M.), Méthodes des sciences sociales, Paris, Dalloz, coll. «Précis Dalloz», 1996, 10e édition.

For articles: Wessels (W.), ‘An Ever Closer Fusion? A Dynamic Macropolitical View on Integration Processes’, Journal of Common Market Studies, vol. 35, n° 2, 1997, p. 267-299.

For sections of a book: Jacquemain (M.), ‘Le capital social: une introduction’, in Houard (J.) et Jacquemain (M.), Capital social et dynamique régionale, Bruxelles, De Boeck Université, 2006, p. 5-40.

For references to an electronic source, it is appropriate to mention the following things: name of the author of the document (if known), the title of the web page, the name of the web site (if possible), the date of the document (if possible), the URL and the date the page was consulted. Example: Topan (A.), ‘The resignation of the Santer-Commission: the impact of “trust” and “reputation”’, European Integration Online Papers, vol. 6, n° 14, 2002, http://eiop.or.at/eiop/texte/2002-014a.htm(consulted on 10/11/2002).

The Federalism-Regionalism Review is an electronic publication under the rules of Open access. It uses formatting software that operates by means of the use of particular ‘styles’. For this reason the text must be set up as simply as possible:

-       Do not number pages;

-       Texts should be in Times New Roman 12 point with single spacing;

-       Different headings must be clearly distinguished; no more than three levels of these should be used, and according to the following format:

1.     Top level heading

1.1.   Second level heading

1.1.1.     Third level heading

-       Paragraphs should not be separated by a blank line; a new paragraph begins on the next line after the end of a paragraph.

-       Foreign words or words from ancient languages (e.g., Latin) should appear in italics. It is necessary to avoid using italics, bolding, or underlining in order to highlight words or phrases;

-       Tables, graphics, and images must be submitted in a separate document, with indications as to their respective position in the manuscript;

-       Quotations are enclosed by English-style quotation marks, without any space between the first quotation mark and the first word quoted, or any space between the last word quoted and the final quotation mark: (‘example’). The text in quotation marks should not be placed in italics.

Texts submitted must not contain grammatical errors. Capital letters must bear accent marks where appropriate.

Texts must be submitted in electronic form either as Word documents or in RTF format to the following e-mail address federalisme-regionalisme@misc.ulg.ac.be.

Texts will be sent prior to publication for evaluation to specialists in the matters covered, using the double-blind format. The anti-plagiarism tool of the University of Liège (based on Ephorus) is used for every submitted article before the peer-review process.

For more information, prospective authors are invited to contact the office of the Review:

Revue Fédéralisme-Régionalisme

Université de Liège

Boulevard du Rectorat, 7 – B.31

B – 4000 Liège

Belgium

E-mail : federalisme-regionalisme@misc.ulg.ac.be

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A major turning point in the history of the Meuse-Rhine area was the integration of Belgium, the Rhineland and the Dutch territories alongside the Meuse into the French Republic at the end of the 18th century. The French occupation put an end to the patchwork of sovereignties that had covered the area for a long time. However, after the fall of the Napoleonic Empire (1814) administrative fragmentation was re-introduced. First, the border between Limburg and the Rhineland was re-drawn in 1815, at the Congress of Vienna. Next, the Meuse was to be a frontier as the Belgians went their own way, seceding from the Netherlands in the 1830s. As a result, the region was criss-crossed again by borders of three modern nation states: Belgium, the Netherlands, and Germany.

As a social historian, the chief purpose of my research is to investigate the social consequences of the rise of the modern nation state for the people living in border regions, such as the Dutch province of Limburg. How did the incorporation of these peripheral regions into the nation state interfere with the everyday reality in which many people lived? Did the incorporation prevent large numbers of boys and girls, living in border communities, from seeking potential husbands and wives in the neighbouring villages across the border? Did these national borders cut off the Limburgers from labour markets in which the working people had been fully integrated for a long time? What was in general the impact of boundaries on cross-border mobility and migration? This historical introduction focuses on cross-border activity in the Limburg-Liège area, leaving aside for the moment interactions alongside the German border. 1

Allegedly, the Meuse-Rhine area, once the homeland of the Carolingians, has always shown a rather high degree of cohesion, in spite of the natural, linguistic and political frontiers dissecting the region. During many centuries human life has evolved here in quite a similar way. In spite of the rise of nation states, the inhabitants of the area retained a cross-border orientation. As it is said by a German historian: «Denn die Menschen der Euregio Maas-Rhein haben jeden Tag mit “drei Ländern" ["notesbaspage"]=> string(9119) "

1 Interactions alongside the Dutch-German border region were at least equally important. Langeweg (Serge), «Werken over de grens. Limburgers naar Duitsland, 1870-1914», in Studies over de sociaal-economische geschiedenis van Limburg/ Jaarboek Sociaal Historisch Centrum voor Limburg, vol. XLVII, 2002, p. 27-48.
2  Tree (Wolfgang), Euregio Meuse-Rhine. European prelude/Euregio Maas-Rhein. Europäisches Vorspiel, 1992, p. 39.
3  Historical overview of the MHAL-area. The three-country area Maastricht/Heerlen, Hassel/Genk, Aix-la-Chapelle-Liège, Leerssen (J.Th.) et al. ed., Maastricht, 1994.
4  Owing to the enterprises of the Regout brothers, who founded an industrial empire of earthenware manufactures, crystalleries and clout nailworks. Jansen (J.C.G.M.), «Maastricht tussen 1813-1850», in Bijdragen en Mededelingen betreffende de Geschiedenis der Nederlanden, 101, 1986, p. 529-550.
5  The lettering on the Maastricht road signs was both Dutch and French until the late 19th century. Kessels-Van der Heijde (Marina), «Maastricht, Maestricht, Mestreech. De taalverhoudingen tussen Nederlands, Frans en Maastrichts in de negentiende eeuw» in Maaslandse Monografieën, vol. 65, Hilversum, 2002, p. 82-84.
6  The proportion of the Dutch Limburg population born in Belgium declined from 2.6 % around 1850 to 1.3 % around 1890.
7  Van Wettere-Verhasselt (Yola),  «Les frontières du Nord et de l’Est de la Belgique. Etude de géographie humaine», in Revue Belge de Géographie, vol. 89, Bruxelles, 1966, p. 287.
8  Maastricht, the only Limburg town left under Dutch control, was completely cut off from its hinterland in the 1830s.
9  This development should have stimulated the orientation of the Maastricht people on the Dutch nation, however they tended to marry increasingly among each other. The proportion of endogenous couples, bride and bridegroom both from Maastricht origin, almost doubled between 1830 and 1900!
10  From the 1880s and 1890s the proportion of mixed marriages recovered in Eijsden as well as Mheer c.a., but this was a temporary phenomenon, related in the case of Eijsden to the foundation, with Walloon capital and know how, of a zinc industry that attracted pretty much migrant workers from Lanaye and the Geer Valley. This development was set back however by World War I.
11  Knippenberg (Hans), «The incorporation of Limburg in the Dutch state», in Knippenberg (Hans) en Markusse (Jan) ed., Nationalising and denationalising European border regions, 1800-2000, Dordrecht, 1999, p. 39-60.
12  For exemple in the Belgian censusses: Population : recensement général (15 octobre 1846), Bruxelles, Ministère de l’Intérieur, 1849 and idem (31 décembre 1866), Bruxelles, Ministère de l’Intérieur, 1870.
13  van Es (Constance), Migratie te Maastricht, 1850-1920, doctoraal scriptie, Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen, 1980.
14 Proportionally, the increase was from 1.1 (1846) to 1.4 % (1866).
15  Hanson (Dominique), L’immigration étrangère à Liège dans la première moitié du XIXe siècle, Mémoire de Licence, Université de Liège, Liège 1974; Hanson (Dominique), «L’immigration étrangère à Liège (1920-1975): endogamie matrimoniale?», in Actes du colloque international amour et mariage en Europe, Luik, Musée de la vie Wallonne et Ministères de la culture belges, 1978, p. 192-205.
16  Desama (Claude), Population et révolution industrielle. Evolution des structures démographiques à Verviers dans la première moitié du 19e siècle, Bibliothèque de la Faculté de Philosophie et Lettres de l’Université de Liège, Fasc. CCXLIII, Liège, 1985, p. 175-176, p. 192-193; Leboutte (René), Reconversions de la main-d’œuvre et transition démographique. Les bassins industriels en aval de Liège XVIIe-XXe siècles, Bibliothèque de la Faculté de Philosophie et Lettres de l’Université de Liège, Fasc. CCLI, Liège, 1988, p. 454-467; Pasleau (Suzy), Industries et populations : l’enchaînement des deux croissances à Seraing au XIXe siècle, Bibliothèque de la Faculté de Philosophie et Lettres de l’Université de Liège, Fasc. CCLXXV, Liège, 1998, p. 231-248.
17  Van Wettere-Verhasselt (Yola),  Les frontières du Nord et de l’Est de la Belgique, op. cit., p. 289, 363.
18  «Les Hollandais construisent du logement [à Liège]. Un investissement de 410 millions», Le Soir, 19 décembre 2001.
19  Regarding leisure and shopping people from Liège display a preference for Luxemburg, secondly for Dutch and Belgian Limburg, which are at a match for each other.
20  Korres (Achim), «Historische interacties in de Euregio Maas-Rijn: migratiestromen in een grensgebied», in Studies over de sociaal-economische geschiedenis van Limburg/ Jaarboek Sociaal Historisch Centrum voor Limburg, XLVII, 2002, p. 7-26.
21  This bias might also apply to other subregions, like the Aachen district. As much as 16 % of the Aachen respondents declared to originate from Belgium or Dutch Limburg. Apparently the confusion did not blur the results for Liège and Luxemburg. These might as well be plausible.
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Dr Willibrord Rutten

Cross-border mobility in the Liège-Limburg area in the past and the present (19th-20th centuries). The results of the survey in a historical perspective

Article Open Access

1A major turning point in the history of the Meuse-Rhine area was the integration of Belgium, the Rhineland and the Dutch territories alongside the Meuse into the French Republic at the end of the 18th century. The French occupation put an end to the patchwork of sovereignties that had covered the area for a long time. However, after the fall of the Napoleonic Empire (1814) administrative fragmentation was re-introduced. First, the border between Limburg and the Rhineland was re-drawn in 1815, at the Congress of Vienna. Next, the Meuse was to be a frontier as the Belgians went their own way, seceding from the Netherlands in the 1830s. As a result, the region was criss-crossed again by borders of three modern nation states: Belgium, the Netherlands, and Germany.

2As a social historian, the chief purpose of my research is to investigate the social consequences of the rise of the modern nation state for the people living in border regions, such as the Dutch province of Limburg. How did the incorporation of these peripheral regions into the nation state interfere with the everyday reality in which many people lived? Did the incorporation prevent large numbers of boys and girls, living in border communities, from seeking potential husbands and wives in the neighbouring villages across the border? Did these national borders cut off the Limburgers from labour markets in which the working people had been fully integrated for a long time? What was in general the impact of boundaries on cross-border mobility and migration? This historical introduction focuses on cross-border activity in the Limburg-Liège area, leaving aside for the moment interactions alongside the German border. 1

3Allegedly, the Meuse-Rhine area, once the homeland of the Carolingians, has always shown a rather high degree of cohesion, in spite of the natural, linguistic and political frontiers dissecting the region. During many centuries human life has evolved here in quite a similar way. In spite of the rise of nation states, the inhabitants of the area retained a cross-border orientation. As it is said by a German historian: «Denn die Menschen der Euregio Maas-Rhein haben jeden Tag mit “drei Ländern

Notes

1 Interactions alongside the Dutch-German border region were at least equally important. Langeweg (Serge), «Werken over de grens. Limburgers naar Duitsland, 1870-1914», in Studies over de sociaal-economische geschiedenis van Limburg/ Jaarboek Sociaal Historisch Centrum voor Limburg, vol. XLVII, 2002, p. 27-48.
2  Tree (Wolfgang), Euregio Meuse-Rhine. European prelude/Euregio Maas-Rhein. Europäisches Vorspiel, 1992, p. 39.
3  Historical overview of the MHAL-area. The three-country area Maastricht/Heerlen, Hassel/Genk, Aix-la-Chapelle-Liège, Leerssen (J.Th.) et al. ed., Maastricht, 1994.
4  Owing to the enterprises of the Regout brothers, who founded an industrial empire of earthenware manufactures, crystalleries and clout nailworks. Jansen (J.C.G.M.), «Maastricht tussen 1813-1850», in Bijdragen en Mededelingen betreffende de Geschiedenis der Nederlanden, 101, 1986, p. 529-550.
5  The lettering on the Maastricht road signs was both Dutch and French until the late 19th century. Kessels-Van der Heijde (Marina), «Maastricht, Maestricht, Mestreech. De taalverhoudingen tussen Nederlands, Frans en Maastrichts in de negentiende eeuw» in Maaslandse Monografieën, vol. 65, Hilversum, 2002, p. 82-84.
6  The proportion of the Dutch Limburg population born in Belgium declined from 2.6 % around 1850 to 1.3 % around 1890.
7  Van Wettere-Verhasselt (Yola),  «Les frontières du Nord et de l’Est de la Belgique. Etude de géographie humaine», in Revue Belge de Géographie, vol. 89, Bruxelles, 1966, p. 287.
8  Maastricht, the only Limburg town left under Dutch control, was completely cut off from its hinterland in the 1830s.
9  This development should have stimulated the orientation of the Maastricht people on the Dutch nation, however they tended to marry increasingly among each other. The proportion of endogenous couples, bride and bridegroom both from Maastricht origin, almost doubled between 1830 and 1900!
10  From the 1880s and 1890s the proportion of mixed marriages recovered in Eijsden as well as Mheer c.a., but this was a temporary phenomenon, related in the case of Eijsden to the foundation, with Walloon capital and know how, of a zinc industry that attracted pretty much migrant workers from Lanaye and the Geer Valley. This development was set back however by World War I.
11  Knippenberg (Hans), «The incorporation of Limburg in the Dutch state», in Knippenberg (Hans) en Markusse (Jan) ed., Nationalising and denationalising European border regions, 1800-2000, Dordrecht, 1999, p. 39-60.
12  For exemple in the Belgian censusses: Population : recensement général (15 octobre 1846), Bruxelles, Ministère de l’Intérieur, 1849 and idem (31 décembre 1866), Bruxelles, Ministère de l’Intérieur, 1870.
13  van Es (Constance), Migratie te Maastricht, 1850-1920, doctoraal scriptie, Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen, 1980.
14 Proportionally, the increase was from 1.1 (1846) to 1.4 % (1866).
15  Hanson (Dominique), L’immigration étrangère à Liège dans la première moitié du XIXe siècle, Mémoire de Licence, Université de Liège, Liège 1974; Hanson (Dominique), «L’immigration étrangère à Liège (1920-1975): endogamie matrimoniale?», in Actes du colloque international amour et mariage en Europe, Luik, Musée de la vie Wallonne et Ministères de la culture belges, 1978, p. 192-205.
16  Desama (Claude), Population et révolution industrielle. Evolution des structures démographiques à Verviers dans la première moitié du 19e siècle, Bibliothèque de la Faculté de Philosophie et Lettres de l’Université de Liège, Fasc. CCXLIII, Liège, 1985, p. 175-176, p. 192-193; Leboutte (René), Reconversions de la main-d’œuvre et transition démographique. Les bassins industriels en aval de Liège XVIIe-XXe siècles, Bibliothèque de la Faculté de Philosophie et Lettres de l’Université de Liège, Fasc. CCLI, Liège, 1988, p. 454-467; Pasleau (Suzy), Industries et populations : l’enchaînement des deux croissances à Seraing au XIXe siècle, Bibliothèque de la Faculté de Philosophie et Lettres de l’Université de Liège, Fasc. CCLXXV, Liège, 1998, p. 231-248.
17  Van Wettere-Verhasselt (Yola),  Les frontières du Nord et de l’Est de la Belgique, op. cit., p. 289, 363.
18  «Les Hollandais construisent du logement [à Liège]. Un investissement de 410 millions», Le Soir, 19 décembre 2001.
19  Regarding leisure and shopping people from Liège display a preference for Luxemburg, secondly for Dutch and Belgian Limburg, which are at a match for each other.
20  Korres (Achim), «Historische interacties in de Euregio Maas-Rijn: migratiestromen in een grensgebied», in Studies over de sociaal-economische geschiedenis van Limburg/ Jaarboek Sociaal Historisch Centrum voor Limburg, XLVII, 2002, p. 7-26.
21  This bias might also apply to other subregions, like the Aachen district. As much as 16 % of the Aachen respondents declared to originate from Belgium or Dutch Limburg. Apparently the confusion did not blur the results for Liège and Luxemburg. These might as well be plausible.

Pour citer cet article

Dr Willibrord Rutten, «Cross-border mobility in the Liège-Limburg area in the past and the present (19th-20th centuries). The results of the survey in a historical perspective», Fédéralisme Régionalisme [En ligne], Volume 3 : 2002-2003 - Mobilité et identités dans l'Eurégio Meuse-Rhin, URL : http://popups.ulg.ac.be/1374-3864/index.php?id=231.

A propos de : Dr Willibrord Rutten

Sociaal Historisch Centrum voor Limburg, Maastricht